October 28th, 1860 saw the birth of Jigaro Kano in Kobe, Japan.  Son of a high-ranking government official and Shinto Priest, he was the third son of a family of three boys and two girls.  Young Jigaro was physically weak in his early years; in fact, he was beaten up so often by local bullies he resolved to strengthen himself the best way he could.  It was his unrelenting drive to learn how to defend himself that eventually led to his formulation of Judo.

Jujitsu was flourishing during Jigaro’s boyhood and it was to instructors of this martial art that Jigaro turned when he enrolled as a student at Tokyo Imperial University.  Apparently he was obsessed with the desire to learn the manly art of self-defense and concluded that jujitsu offered him his best chance.  He was but 17 and his instructor who was an osteopath as well as an instructor in jujitsu.  This may have been a fortunate combination of skills although historians apparently do not elaborate on the fact.

This new instructor, Hachinosuke Fukuda, stressed technique over formal exercise, or Kata, and his method of explaining the exercises but concentrating on free exercise, or randori, undoubtedly influenced Jigaro’s teachings greatl

Jigaro Kano ate, drank, and slept jujitsu.  By the time he was 21 he became a master.  It was about this time that he encountered a 200-pound bruiser to whom he invariably lost.  He wanted to beat this man so badly that it filled all his thoughts.  After studying everything he could get his hands on, he finally worked out a new technique.  The next time he met his burly rival, he charged in low, lifted him onto his shoulder, whirled him around, and tossed him to the mat.  He named his new throw “kata garuma” or shoulder whirl.  Other throws he worked out included “uki goshi”, rising hip throw and “tsuri komi goshi”, lift-pull-hip throw.

Kano now devoted himself to formulating a system of reformed jujitsu founded on scientific principles, integrating combat training with mental and physical education.  He borrowed mat techniques, striking techniques, and throwing techniques from various schoools of jujitsu, holding on to those that conformed to scientific principles and rejecting all others.  All harmful and dangerous techniques were eliminated.

When 22 year old Kano took nine of his private students from the dojo of his master Iikubo in February 1882 and set up his own dojo, Judo didn’t automatically spring into being.  In fact master Iikubo came two or three times a week to help instruct Kano’s students.  They were still learning jujitsu rather than judo.  Judo possibly came into being the day that Kano first defeated Iikubo.  Until then he had never managed to get the better of him.  But that day in randori practice, kano blocked every move Iikubo made, then called on his “uke-waza” and “sumi-otoshi” to throw the jujitsu master no less than three times.

Kano explained: “force your opponent to make his body rigid and lose his balance, then when he is helpless, you attack.

Iikubo replied: “From now on, you teach me.”

1884 was the year when Kodokan by-laws were drawn-up.  Kano declared, “Taking together schools of jujitsu and adding my own devices and invention, I have founded a new system for physical culture, mental training, and winning of contests.  This I call Kodokan-Judo.”

Kano saw judo in terms of a sport, whereas jujitsu was merely another of the martial arts, a method of defense.  The dangerous techniques of jujitsu were eliminated from the judo contests, but remained as part of judo’s defense system.  Another essential difference from jujitsu was judo’s application of “kazushi”, a theory devised by Jigaro Kano during his jujitsu training and used so successfully against master Iikubo, “Using a minimum amount of strength, it is possible to throw your opponent if you force him off-balance by breaking his posture.” Kano’s fame and greatness are based on this principle just as much as they are on his being the founder of judo.



  •  Front Break Fall – Mae Ukemi

  •  Side Break Fall – Yoko Ukemi

  •  Back Break Fall – Ushiro Ukemi

  •  Rolling Break Fall – Zenpo Kaiten Ukemi


  •    Major Hip – Ogoshi

  •    One Arm Back Carry – Ippon Seoinage

  •    Double Arm Back Carry – Marote Seoinage

  •    Hip Wheel – Koshi Guruma

  •    Floating Drop – Uki Otoshi

  •    Shoulder Wheel – Kata Guuma

  •    Minor Outside Reaping – Ko Soto Gari

  •    Major Outside Reaping – Osoto Gari


  •    Variation Scarf Hold – Kuzure Kesa Gatame

  •    Shoulder Hold – Kata Gatame

  •    Upper Four Corner Hold – Kami Shiho Gatame

  •    Side Four Corner Hold – Yoko Shiho Gatame

  •    Variation Upper Four Corner Hold – Kuzure Kami Shiho Gatame

  •    Show proficiency in falling when being thrown.

  •    Randori

History Questions

  •     Brief history of Judo

  •    What are the two principles of Judo?

  •    Maximum Efficiency

  •    Mutual benefit and welfare

  •    What is the goal of Judo?

  •    The harmonious development and eventual perfection of human character.

  •    Know The Names, In English, Of The THROWS And PINS:

  •    What are the three parts of the throw?

  •    Kuzushi – Off Balancing

  •    Tsukuru – Entry

  •    Kake – Execution



All previous requirements.


  •  Outer wrap pull-Soto Makki Komi

  • Minor inside reaping-Kouchi Gari

  • Major inside reaping-Ouchi Gari

  • Stomach throw-Tomoe Nage

  • Floating hip-Uki Goshi

  • Propping ankle throw-Sasae Tsuri Komi Ashi

  • Lift pull hip-Tsuri Komi Goshi

  • Chasing foot sweep-Okuri Ashi Barai

  • Inner thigh-Uchi Mata

Demonstrate Tsugi ashi and Ayumi Ashi

  • Break falls-Demonstrate falls from a greater height.

  • Know the japanese names of the throw and pins.


  • Uki Otoshi

  • Seoinage

  • Kata guruma


  • Hadaka Jime-Naked choke

  • Kataha Jime-Sliding collar choke

  • Okuri Eri Jime-Single wing choke

Judo 3rd KYU Requirements

1: All Previous Requirements


  • Tai Otoshi-Body drop

  • Ura Nage-Rear throw

  • Sumigaeshi-Corner throw

  • Yoko Wakare-Side seperation

  •  Yoko Guruma-Side wheel

  •  Tani Otoshi-Valley drop

  •  Kani Basami-Crab throw

  •  Harai Goshi-Sweeping hip throw


  • Kata Juji Jime-Half cross lock

  • Gyaku Juji Jime-Reverse cross lock


  •    Uki Goshi-Floating hip

  •    Harai Goshi-Sweeping hip throw

  •    Tsuri Komi Goshi-Lift pull hip


  •    Ude garami-Entangled arm

  •    Juji gatame- Crossmark hold

  •    Ude gatame-Arm hold

  •    HIza gatame-Knee hold

  •    Ashi garami-Entangled leg

Judo 2nd KYU Requirements

1. All previous requirements

2. NAGE WAZA – Throws

  • Spring Hip Throw – Hane Goshi

  • Changing Hip Throw – Utsuri Goshi

  • Scooping Throw – Sukui Nage

  • Knee Wheel – Hiza Guruma

  • Outer Winding Spring Hip – Hane Makki Komi

  • Corner Drip – Sumi Otoshi

  •  Major Outer Wheel – Osoto Guruma

  • Floating Throw – Uki Waza

3. NAGE NO KATA – 3rd Set

  • Ashi Waza – Foot or Base Techniques

  • Sweeping Ankle Throw – Okuri Ashi Barai

  • Propping Ankle Throw – Sasae Tsuri Komi Ashi

  • Inner Thigh – Uchi Mata

4. Show Katame-No Kata in an informal manner

5. Perform the first three sets of Nage No Kata

6. Be able to explain the yellow belt throws

7. Show basic referee skills for Judo

Judo 1st KYU Requirements


  • Advancing Foot Sweep – De Ashi Barai

  • Minor Outside Hooking Ankle – Kosoto Gake

  • Lifting Hip – Tsuri Goshi

  • Leg Wheel – Ashi Guruma

  • Sweeping Drawing Ankle Throw – Harai Tsuri Komi Ashi

  • Major Wheel – Ogurumua

  • Rear Hip – Ushiro Goshi

  • Side Body Drop – Yoko Gake

  • Outer Winding Throw – Osoto Makki Komi

  • Side Drop – Yoko Otoshi

2. NAGE NO KATA – 4th Set

  • Masutemi Waza – Back Sacrificing Technique

  • Stomach Throw – Tomoe Nage

  • Rear Throw – Ura Nage

  • Corner Throw – Sumigaeshi

3. 5 Types of Tai Sabaki – Body Maneuvers

4. 3 Turnover Techniques from top position

5. Reversals


   a. Ogoshi               Yoko Wakare

   b. Ogoshi               Utsuri Goshi

   c. Ogoshi               Kosoto Gashi

   d. Ogoshi               Osoto Gari

   e. Tai Ostoshi        Kosoto Gari

Judo Sho Dan Requirements

1. All previous requirements

2. English and Japanese translations of all techniques

3. Any 40 throws

4. Katame-No-Kata

5. NAGE NO KATA – 5th Set

Yoko Sutemi Waza – Side Sacrificing Technique

  • Yoko Gake – Side Body Drop

  • Yoko Guruma – Side Wheel

  • Uki Waza – Floating Technique

6.    5 Reversals (Suggestions)


  • Ouchi Gari De Ashi Barai

  • Uki Otoshi Tai Otoshi

  • Ogoshi Yoko Wakare

7. 10 Combinations

  • Tai Otoshi → Tai Otosh

  • Left Sasae Tsuri Komi Ashi → Kouchi Gari

  • Left Sasae Tsuri Komi Ashi → Sode Tsuri Komi Goshi

  • Right Sasae Tsuri Komi Ashi → Tai Otoshi

  • Kouchi Gari → Ippon Seionage

  • Ippon Seionage → Ouchi Gari

  • Tai Otoshi → Sode Tsuri Komi Goshi

  • Osoto Gari → Soto Makki Komi

Judo Basics

1.  In reaching for an opponent ones elbow should not extend past ones ribs unless it can be done in an instant.

2.  keep your hands in front of the chest plane at all times.                                                                                

3.  The head turns in agreement with the motion of the throw.                                                                            

4.  Keep the weight on the front part of the foot and knees flexed when performing tachi waza.                         

5.  When breaking the lapel grip make sure the body turns to face the contact point so you can push straight away from the chest.                                                                                                                                           

6.  When moving in tachi waza do not cross your legs.                                                                                      

 7.  When reaching for the lapel keep your grip close to your shoulder level.                                                          

8.  If you are in the opponents guard, either have both hands above or below your opponents legs.                     

9.  If you are in your opponents guard, keep your spine alighned with his.                                                             

10.  If your opponent gets one of your knees above your belt while in the guard, and he is on top, slide your hips to

the side so that he falls to the mat and assume a side guard from the bottom.                                               

11.  Two types of front breakfall should be practiced.  One in which arms land forward of the feet and one in which

arms land where feet were.                                                                                                                      

12.  In O and Ko soto gari your base foot should be on the opponents foot line or deeper.                                    

13.  In offense, space is your enemy and in defense, it is your friend.                                                                     

14.  In tachi waza, turn if your opponent pushes, and go forward, diagonally, if he pulls.                                         

15.  In order to do the previous rule a gap must me bade by a sharp push or a sharp pull down, respectively.        

16.  Your throw should be on the perpendicular bisector of your opponents foot line.                                           

17.  Foot sweeps are done in the direction of your opponents toes.                                                                       

18.  In newaza, try not to have your back turned to your opponent.                                                                     

19.  The triangle approach to a throw:  Face each other in a paralell stance.  The three points of the triangle are    

your two feet and the midpoint between your opponents feet.  I will call M.  Right normal grip.  Move R foot

to a point near M on the line connecting M and L foot.  Just enough from M to allow L foot to step behind   

R footand have ball of L foot on M.  Now place R foot on spot where L foot was originally.   While doing   

that make sure to pull opponent along with you.                                                                                          

20.  If your losing your hold in newaza, change to a different hold, don’t try to save it by holding tighter.             

Exception to rule 2.  The arm remaining straight and in line with the spine can hold a great deal of weight. 

An example is the Russian grip as it is used in uchi mata.